The matrix transpose by list comprehension

Consider a $3\times 3$ matrix represented by a list of lists:

M = [[1,2,3],

Without using list comprehension, the transpose of this matrix could be built up by looping over the rows and columns:

MT = [[0,0,0], [0,0,0], [0,0,0]]
for ir in range(3):
    for ic in range(3):
        MT[ic][ir] = M[ir][ic]

With one list comprehension, the transpose can be constructed as

MT = []
for i in range(3):
    MT.append([row[i] for row in M])

where rows of the transposed matrix are built from the columns (indexed with i=0,1,2) of each row in turn from M). The outer loop here can be expressed as a list comprehension of its own:

MT = [[row[i] for row in M] for i in range(3)]

Note, however, that NumPy provides much easier to use methods for manipulating matrices - see Section 6.6 of the book.