Animating a bouncing ball

The following program animates a bouncing ball, starting from a position $(0, y_0)$ with velocity $(v_{x0}, 0)$. The ball's position, trajectory history and height label all change with each frame.

Animating a bouncing ball

Here, the frames argument to FuncAnimation is set to a generator function, get_pos, which returns the next position of the ball each time it iterates. This position is handed on to the animate function instead of the integer index of the frame.

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import matplotlib.animation as animation

# Acceleration due to gravity, m.s-2.
g = 9.81
# The maximum x-range of ball's trajectory to plot.
XMAX = 5
# The coefficient of restitution for bounces (-v_up/v_down).
cor = 0.65
# The time step for the animation.
dt = 0.005

# Initial position and velocity vectors.
x0, y0 = 0, 4
vx0, vy0 = 1, 0

def get_pos(t=0):
    """A generator yielding the ball's position at time t."""
    x, y, vx, vy = x0, y0, vx0, vy0
    while x < XMAX:
        t += dt
        x += vx0 * dt
        y += vy * dt
        vy -= g * dt
        if y < 0:
            # bounce!
            y = 0
            vy = -vy * cor 
        yield x, y

def init():
    """Initialize the animation figure."""
    ax.set_xlim(0, XMAX)
    ax.set_ylim(0, y0)
    ax.set_xlabel('$x$ /m')
    ax.set_ylabel('$y$ /m')
    line.set_data(xdata, ydata)
    ball.set_center((x0, y0))
    height_text.set_text(f'Height: {y0:.1f} m')
    return line, ball, height_text

def animate(pos):
    """For each frame, advance the animation to the new position, pos."""
    x, y = pos
    line.set_data(xdata, ydata)
    ball.set_center((x, y))
    height_text.set_text(f'Height: {y:.1f} m')
    return line, ball, height_text

# Set up a new Figure, with equal aspect ratio so the ball appears round.
fig, ax = plt.subplots()

# These are the objects we need to keep track of.
line, = ax.plot([], [], lw=2)
ball = plt.Circle((x0, y0), 0.08)
height_text = ax.text(XMAX*0.5, y0*0.8, f'Height: {y0:.1f} m')
xdata, ydata = [], []

interval = 1000*dt
ani = animation.FuncAnimation(fig, animate, get_pos, blit=True,
                      interval=interval, repeat=False, init_func=init)

The generator function, get_pos will keep on producing the ball's position vector, (x, y) until the ball's $x$-coordinate reaches XMAX; then when the generator is exhausted and produces None, the animation stops.